EtymologyThe name Haryana could mean "the Abode of God", derived from the Sanskrit words Hari (the Hindu God Vishnu) and ayana (home). Scholars such as Muni Lal, Murli Chand Sharma, HA Phadke and Sukhdev Singh Chib believe that the name Haryana comes from the words Hari (Sanskrit Harit, "green") and Aranya (forest). Haryana name was probably derived from the Great Rana HarRai, a great General of Samrat Prithviraj Chauhan, who settled down along with the folks from his clan in the plains of present day Haryana and therefore was the largest and the most powerful occupant of present day Haryana . He is also popularly known as Rana Harra .
Ancient periodIndus Valley Civilization with centers such as Banawali and Rakhigarhi. The most extensive center, Rakhigarhi, is now a village in Hisar District. The site is dated to be over 5,000 years old. Evidence of paved roads, drainage system, large rainwater collection, storage system, terracotta brick, statue production, and skilled metal working (in both bronze and precious metals) has been uncovered.
Also the Vedic Civilization flourished on the banks of the now lost Sarasvati River. Several decisive battles were fought in the area, which shaped much of the history of India. These include the epic Battle of Kurukshetra described in the Mahabharata (including the recital of the Bhagavad Gita by Krishna) and the three battles of Panipat.
Medieval periodKing Harshavardhana established his capital at Thanesar near Kurukshetra in the 7th century AD. After his death, the kingdom of his clansmen continued to rule over a vast region for quite a while from Harsha's adopted capital of Kannauj. The region remained strategically important for the rulers of North India even though Thanesar was no more central than Kannauj. Prithviraj Chauhan established forts at Tarori and Hansi in the 12th century. Muhammad Ghori conquered this area in the Second Battle of Tarain. Following his death, the Delhi Sultanate was established that ruled much of north India for several centuries. The earliest reference to 'Ahirana' from Ahirs means "Fearless" occurs in a Sanskrit inscription dated 1328 AD kept in Delhi Museum, which refers to this region as The heaven on earth, indicating that it was fertile and relatively peaceful at that time. Firoz Shah Tughlaq established a fort at Hisar in 1354 to further fortify the region, and also constructed canals or rajwahas as they were referred to in the Indo-Persian historical texts.
The three famous battles of Panipat took place near the modern town of Panipat in Haryana. The first battle took place in 1526, where Babur, the ruler of Kabul, defeated Ibrahim Lodi of the Delhi Sultanate, through the use of field artillery.
Rise of Hemu as a Vikramaditya kingHemu, son of a Purohit Family living in Rewari in south Haryana, started his career as a supplier of merchandise especially, Cannons and Gun Powder to Sher Shah Suri's army, during 1540s. Gradually, Hemu progressed and held various positions in Suri administration during Sher Shah's son, Islam Shah's regime during 1546–1553, and rose to become Prime Minister and General of Suri army under Adil Shah. During 1553–56, ruling as de facto king of North India, Hemu won 22 battles continuously against Afghan rebels and Mughal forces from Punjab to Bengal without losing any to consolidate his empire. After defeating Akbar's army at Agra and Delhi in Battle for Delhi (1556), Hem Chandra acceeded to the throne of Delhi on 7 October 1556, declaring 'Hindu Raj' in north India and himself as a Vikramaditya king on the pattern of earlier Vedic kings in India. Hemu lost his life in the second battle of Panipat on November the 5th, 1556, when Akbar's forces defeated, this local Haryanvi warrior rightly called Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya.
The decline of the Mughal Empire in early 18th century, led to rapid territorial gains for the Maratha Empire, including Haryana. In 1737, Maratha forces sacked Delhi, following their victory against the Mughals in the First Battle of Delhi. A treaty signed in 1752 made Marathas the protector of the Mughal throne at Delhi. Baji Rao's son, Balaji Baji Rao (popularly known as Nana Saheb), further increased the territory under Maratha control by invading Punjab and Peshawar in 1758. This brought the Marathas into direct confrontation with the Durrani empire of Ahmad Shah Abdali, who was based in Kabul. After the Third Battle of Panipat was fought in 1761 between the Maratha Empire and the Afghan warlord Ahmad Shah Abdali, Marathas lost Punjab, Delhi and Haryana to Ahmad Shah Durrani. Within 10 years, Mahadji Shinde re-established Maratha rule over North India, Haryana region remained under the rule of the Scindhia clan of the Maratha Empire, until in 1803, the British East India Company took control of Gurgaon through the Treaty of Surji-Anjangaon after the Second Anglo-Maratha War.
Formation of HaryanaHaryana state was formed on 1 November 1966. The Indian government set up the Shah Commission under the chairmanship of Justice JC Shah on 23 April 1966 to divide the existing Punjab and determine the boundaries of new state Haryana giving consideration to the language spoken by the people. The commission gave its report on 31 May 1966. According to this report the then districts of Hisar, Mahendragarh, Gurgaon, Rohtak and Karnal were to be a part of the new state of Haryana. Further, the tehsils of Jind in (district Sangrur), Narwana in (district Sangrur), Naraingarh, Ambala and Jagadhri were also to be included.
The commission recommended that Tehsil Kharar (including Chandigarh) should be a part of Haryana. However, the city of Chandigarh and a Punjabi-speaking area of Rupnagar district were made a Union Territory, serving as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana.
Bhagwat Dayal Sharma became first Chief Minister of Haryana.
- The Yamuna-Ghaggar plain forming the largest part of the state
- The Shivalik Hills to the northeast
- Semi-desert sandy plain to the southwest
- The Aravalli Range in the south
Rivers of HaryanaThe river Yamuna flows along its eastern boundary. The ancient Sarasvati River is said to have flowed from Yamuna Nagar, but it has now disappeared.
The river Ghaggar is Haryana's main seasonal river. The Ghaggar rises in the outer Himalayas, between the Yamuna and the Sutlej and enters Haryana near Pinjore, Panchkula district. Passing through Ambala and Hissar, it reaches Bikaner in Rajasthan and runs a course of 460 km (290 mi) before disappearing into the deserts of Rajasthan. An important tributary is the Tangri.
The Markanda river is also a seasonal stream. Its ancient name was Aruna. It originates from the lower Sivalik Hills and enters Haryana west of Ambala. During monsoons, this stream swells into a raging torrent notorious for its devastating power. The surplus water is carried on to the Sanisa lake where the Markanda joins the Saraswati and later Ghaggar. Shahbad Markanda town is situated on its bank.
The Sahibi River originates in the Mewat hills near Jitgarh and Manoharpur in Rajasthan. Gathering volume from about a hundred tributaries, it reaches voluminous proportions, forming a broad stream around Alwar and Patan. On reaching Jhajjar it branches off into two smaller streams, finally reaching the outskirts of Delhi and flowing into Najafgarh lake that flows into the Yamuna through the Najafgarh drain. However, of late, hardly any water flows in Sahibi as most of the water is impounded in small check dams uptream in Alwar district of Rajasthan and the Masani barrage built on the river on NH 8 (Delhi-Jaipur highway) remains dry.
There are three other rivulets in and around the Mewat hills – Indori, Dohan and Kasavati and they all flow northwards from the south.
ClimateThe climate of Haryana is similar to other states of India lying in the northern plains. It is very hot in summer (up to a high of 50 deg Celsius) and cold in winters (down to a low of 1 deg Celsius). The hottest months are May and June and the coldest being December and January. Rainfall is varied, with the Shivalik Hills region being the wettest and the Aravali Hills region being the driest. About 80% of the rainfall occurs in the monsoon season (July–September) and sometimes causes local flooding.
Flora and fauna
|Formation day||1 November (Day of
separation from Punjab)
|State animal||Blue Bull|
|State bird||Black Francolin|
DemographicsHindus are majority in Haryana and are about 88.23% of the population, Muslims 5.78% (mainly Meos), Sikhs 5.53%, Others 0.45%. In 2001 Hindus made up 18,655,925 of the population, Muslims 1,222,196, Sikhs 1,170,662, Jains 57,167, Christians 27,185, and Buddhists 7,140. Muslims are mainly in the Mewat district and Yamuna Nagar district, while Sikhs are mostly in the districts adjoining Punjab, Hisar, Sirsa, Jind, Fatehabad, Kaithal, Kurukshetra, Ambala, Narnaul and Panchkula. Haryana has second largest Sikh population in India after the state of Punjab. Agriculture and related industries have been the backbone of the local economy. These days the state is seeing a massive influx of immigrants from across the nation, primarily from Bihar, Bengal, Uttrakhand, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Nepal. Scheduled Castes form 19.3% of the population.
Dalits constitute 19.3 per cent of Haryana's population and Valmikis constitute 19.2 per cent of the Dalit 
Haryana is one of the more socially protracted states in India with rampant caste based discrimination, female foeticide and rapes. In Haryana, caste politics has given insurmountable powers to an ancient and rudimentary social administration system called khap that several law experts deem unconstitutional.
Government and politicsPresident of India. The Chief Minister is the head of the Haryana state government and is vested with most of the executive and legislative powers. Haryana’s legislature is unicameral; its one house, the Haryana Legislative Assembly, consists of 90 members. Haryana has five seats in the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of India's national parliament, and ten in the Lok Sabha, the lower house. The largest political parties in Haryana are the Indian National Lok Dal, All India Forward Bloc , Communist Party of India (Marxist), Haryana Janhit Congress, Bhartiya Janata Party, Bahujan Samaj Party and Indian National Congress. Bhupinder Singh Hooda, a leader of the Indian National Congress, has been the Chief Minister of the state since 2005. Jagannath Pahadia, also a leader of the Indian National Congress, has been the state's governor since 2009.[dead link]
EducationGurgaon city has the highest literacy rate in Haryana followed by Panchkula at 81.9 per cent and Ambala at 81.7 percent. District Rewari has the highest literacy rate in Haryana of 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 79%, and female literacy is 67%.
Rohtak is the educational hub of Haryana. Rohtak has almost 22 colleges within the city. There are four engineering colleges and two polytechnic institutes, 32 primary schools, 69 middle schools and 101 high schools were upgraded to middle, high and senior secondary respectively during the 2004–05 school year. During 2001–02, there were 11,013 primary schools, 1,918 middle schools, 3,023 high schools and 1,301 senior secondary schools in the state. Haryana Board of School Education, established in September 1969 and shifted to Bhiwani in 1981, conducts public examinations at middle, matriculation, and senior secondary levels twice a year. Over seven lac candidates attend annual examinations in February and March, and 150,000 attend supplementary examinations each November. The Board also conducts examinations for Haryana Open School at senior and senior secondary levels twice a year. The Haryana government provides free education to women up to the Bachelor's Degree level.
CultureVedic times. Dhosi Hill, the ashram of revered Rishi Chyawyan is an important site where Chyawanprash was formulated for the first time. The last Hindu emperor of India who belonged to Rewari in Haryana, Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, also called Hemu, taking a cue from Vedic times declared himself a 'Vikramaditya' king after defeating Akbar's forces in Delhi in 1556. It amounted to establishing a vedic 'Hindu Raj' in North India during medieval period after a gap of more than 350 years. The state is rich in folklore with the oldest extant romance of Sorath and Dhaj, Ror Kumar. The people of Haryana have their own traditions. The age-old customs of meditation, Yoga and chanting of Vedic mantras are still observed by the masses. Famous yoga guru Swami Ramdev is from Mahendragarh in Haryana. Seasonal and religious festivals glorify the culture of this region. Haryana has a variety of folk dances.
The people of Haryana have preserved their old religious and social traditions. The culture of Haryana and the humour is very much similar to that of Punjab (as Haryana was a part of Punjab state). They celebrate festivals with great enthusiasm and traditional fervor. Their culture and popular art are saangs, dramas, ballads and songs in which they take great delight. Regarding eating habits, there is an idiom that says, Hara-Bhara Haryana, Jit Doodh-Dahi ka Khana (meaning a lush-green state where milk and curd are the food). Food and cuisines of Haryana are almost same as the ones in Punjab (Greater Punjab); popular Haryanavi dishes include makke di roti (grounded dry corn) and sarso da saag, lassi (sweet yogurt), rajma, cholay-bhature, etc.
LanguagesHaryanavi has traditionally been the dominant mother tongue in Haryana, with Standard Hindi being spoken as a second language. Haryanvi has no official status, as it is seen as a dialect of Hindi & Punjabi. Since 1947, Punjabi has also been spoken by a lot of people in Haryana especially by those Hindus and Sikhs who came over from the older Punjab region at the time of partition. As such, Punjabi is the second official language of Haryana (since Haryana was a part of Greater Punjab state). Haryana is the second-largest Punjabi-speaking state after Punjab.
The most striking feature of Haryana is its language itself or, rather, the manner in which it is spoken. Popularly known as Haryanavi, the language of Jat people, with Bangaru, spoken in the Heart of Haryana, being the most widely spoken dialect. And Ahirwati spoken in Ahirwal belt. With rapid urbanization, and due to Haryana's close proximity to Delhi, the cultural aspects are now taking a more modern hue.
MusicHaryanvi Ragini is very famous in Haryana, and it is a part of folk music in Haryana. Punjabi Music is also widely popular especially in Northern Haryana & western Haryana in districts bordering Punjab.
Economybusiness process outsourcing, agriculture and retail.
- Yamuna Nagar is the largest industrial town wholly within Haryana. It has Asia's largest paper mill, BILT, and Asia's largest sugar mill. Yamuna Nagar has Asia's largest timber industry, an HPGCL thermal power plant, a hydro power plant and India's largest railway workshop. It is also famous for its old steel and brass industries.
- Bahadurgarh is an important developing industrial town with glass, steel, tiles manufacturing and biscuits production.
- Faridabad is another big industrial part of Haryana. It is home to hundreds of large-scale companies like Orient Paper & Industries, JCB India Limited, Nirigemes, Agri Machinery Group (Escorts Limited), India Yamaha Motor Pvt. Ltd., Whirlpool, ABB Group, Goodyear Tyres and Knorr Bremse India Pvt. Ltd. There are thousands of medium- and small-scale units as well, like Amrit Enterprises and McAma Industries.
- Panipat is a city of textiles and carpets. It is the biggest centre for cheap blankets and carpets in IndiaTemplate:Citation betterneeded and has a handloom weaving industry. The pickle "Pachranga International" is well known. Panipat has heavy industry, including a refinery operated by the Indian Oil Corporation and a National Thermal Power Corporation power plant.
- Hissar is another developing city and home town of Navin Jindal and Subhash Chandra of Zee TV fame. Savitri Jindal, Navin Jindal's mother, has been listed by Forbes as a 3rd richest woman in world.
- Ambala is the largest manufacturer of scientific apparatuses. It is named 'Science City' of Haryana. Ambala is one of the biggest exporters of education instruments in the country.
- Rohtak- largest wholesale cloth market of Asia known as shori market. It is also emerging as a major industrial hub with the presence of many renowned organizations e.g. Research and development plant of Maruti Suzuki (only one of its kind out of Japan), Suzuki Motorcycles ltd. Asian Paints, Sabarkantha Cooperatives (Amul Subsidiary), High Tech Plastics, Nippon Carbides etc. Minsk Motors state-owned company of Belarus is also planning to start an engine manufacturing plant here. An International cargo airport is being set up here.
Service industriesGurgaon has seen emergence of an active information technology industry in the recent years. A number of large international companies have their Indian headquarters or branch offices and contact centers in Gurgaon, including Nokia Siemens Networks, Mitsubishi Electric, General Electric, IBM, Huawei, and Tata Consultancy Services.
AgricultureDespite recent industrial development, Haryana is primarily an agricultural state. About 70% of residents are engaged in agriculture Wheat and rice are the major crops. Haryana is self-sufficient in food production and the second largest contributor to India's central pool of food grains. The main crops of Haryana are wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton, oilseeds, pulses, barley, maize, millet etc. There are two main types of crops in Haryana: Rabi and Kharif. The major Kharif crops of Haryana are rice, jowar, bajra, maize, cotton, jute, sugarcane, sesame and groundnut. For these crops the ground is prepared in April and May and the seeds are sown at the commencement of rains in June. The crops are ready for harvesting by the beginning of November. The major Rabi crops are wheat, tobacco, pulses, linseed, rapeseed and mustard. The ground is prepared by the end of October or the beginning of November and the crops are harvested by March.
tube wells and an extensive system of canals. Haryana contributed significantly to the Green Revolution in India in the 1970s that made the country self-sufficient in food production. The state has also significantly contributed to the field of agricultural education in the country. Asia's biggest agricultural University - Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University is located at Hisar and it has made a significant contribution in ushering in the 'Green Revolution' in the state.
Dairy farming is also an essential part of the rural economy. Haryana has a livestock population of 98.97 lakh. Milk and milk products form an essential part of the local diet. There is the saying Desaan main des Haryana, jit doodh dahi ka khaana, which means "Best among all the countries in the world is Haryana, where the staple food is milk and yoghurt". Haryana, with 660 grams of availability of milk per capita per day, ranks at number two in the country as against the national average of 232 grams. There is a vast network of milk societies that support the dairy industry. The National Dairy Research Institute at Karnal is Asia's largest and oldest dairy, and the Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes at Hisar are instrumental in development of new breeds of cattle and propagation of these breeds through embryo transfer technology. The Murrah breed of water buffalo from Haryana is world-famous for its milk.
Roads, aviation and infrastructurenational highways with total length of 1,461 km and many state highways with total length of 2,494 km. The most remote parts of the state are linked with metaled roads. Its modern bus fleet of 3,864 buses covers a distance of 1.15 million Kilometers per day. It was the first State in the country to introduce luxury video coaches. Grand Trunk Road, commonly abbreviated to GT Road, is one of South Asia's oldest and longest major roads. It passes through the districts of Sonipat, Panipat, Karnal, Kurukshetra and Ambala in north Haryana where it enters Delhi and subsequently the industrial town of Faridabad on its way. The state government proposes to construct Express highways and freeways for speedier vehicular traffic. The 135.6-km long Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway(KMP) will provide a high-speed link to northern Haryana with its southern districts such as Sonepat, Gurgaon, Jhajjar and Faridabad. The work on the project has already started and is scheduled to be completed by July 2013. Haryana is in close contact with the cosmopolitan world, being right next to Delhi. As a result, international and domestic airports, diplomatic and commercial complexes are located in close proximity to the state. Haryana and Delhi government has also constructed Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway which has the largest toll plaza in Asia and 3rd largest in the world. There is a proposal for a Badarpur Flyover and the widening of the Mathura Road passing through Faridabad from 6 lanes to 8 lanes. There is also a proposal to connect Chandigarh to Haryana without entering Punjab through a 4-lane highway via Yamuna Nagar and Panchkula. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation connects Gurgaon with Delhi and it will connect Faridabad and Bahadurgarh by 2014 and 2016 respectively.
electrification in 1970, first in the country to link all villages with all-weather roads and first in the country to provide safe drinking water facilities throughout the state. Haryana is well connected on the railway network also.