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Friday, 20 September 2013

Haryana

Haryana

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Haryana
हरियाणा
State
Official seal of Government of Haryana
Seal
Location of Haryana in India
Map of Haryana
Coordinates (Chandigarh): 30°44′N 76°47′ECoordinates: 30°44′N 76°47′E
Country  India
Zone Northern
Established 1 November 1966
Capital Chandigarh
Largest city Faridabad
Districts 21
Government
 • Body Haryana Legislative Assembly
 • Governor Jagannath Pahadia
 • Chief Minister Bhupinder Singh Hooda
 • Legislature Unicameral (90 seats)
 • Lok Sabha constituencies 10
 • Rajya Sabha constituencies 5
Area
 • State 44,212 km2 (17,070 sq mi)
Area rank 20
 • Area under forest 1,684 km2 (650 sq mi)
 • Net sown area 3,550 km2 (1,370 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • State 25,353,081
 • Rank 16
 • Density 573/km2 (1,480/sq mi)
 • Density rank 11
 • Urban 8,821,588
 • Rural 16,531,493
Languages
 • Official Hindi, Punjabi[1]
 • Regional Haryanvi
State symbols
 • Bird Black Francolin
 • Animal Nilgai
 • Flower Lotus
 • Tree Peepal
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-HR
Vehicle registration HR-xx
HDI Increase 0.644 (medium)
HDI rank 17th (2011)
Literacy 76.64 %
Sex ratio 877
Life expectancy 66.2
GDP INR3,093.26 billion (2011–12)
GDP per capita INR109,227 (2011–12)
Growth rate 8.1 %
Website www.haryana.gov.in
Haryana /ˌhɑriˈɑːnə/ (Hindi: हरियाणा) is a state in India. It came into existence on 1 November 1966 as a newly created state carved out of the Punjab state on the basis of language. It has been a part of the Kuru region in North India.[2][3][4] The name Haryana is found mentioned in the 12th century AD by the Apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar (VS 1189–1230).[5] It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south. The river Yamuna defines its eastern border with Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. Haryana also surrounds the country's capital Delhi on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi. Consequently, a large area of south Haryana is included in the National Capital Region for purposes of planning for development.
Sites in Haryana were part of the Indus Valley and Vedic Civilizations. Several decisive battles were fought in the area, which shaped much of the history of India. These include the epic battle of Mahabharata at Kurukshetra mentioned in the Hindu mythology (including the recital of the Bhagavad Gita by Krishna), and the three battles of Panipat. Haryana was administered as part of the Punjab province of British India, and was carved out on linguistic lines as India's 17th state in 1966. Haryana is now a leading contributor to the country's production of foodgrain and milk. Agriculture is the leading occupation for the residents of the state, the flat arable land irrigated by submersible pumps and an extensive canal system. Haryana contributed heavily to the Green Revolution that made India self-sufficient in food production in the 1960s.
Haryana is also one of the wealthier states of India and had the second highest per capita income in the country at INR138,859 in the year 2011–12 (See List of Indian states by GDP) and INR128,341 in the year 2012–13[6] including the largest number of rural crorepatis in India.[7][dead link] Haryana is also one of the most economically developed regions in South Asia and its agricultural and manufacturing industry has experienced sustained growth since 1970s.[8] Haryana is India's largest manufacturer of passenger cars, two-wheelers, and tractors.[9] Since 2000, the state has emerged as the largest recipient of investment per capita in India.[10] The city of Gurgaon has rapidly emerged as a major hub for the information technology and automobile industries. Gurgaon is home to Maruti Suzuki, India's largest automobile manufacturer, and Hero MotoCorp, the world's largest manufacturer of two-wheelers. Sonipat, Yamuna Nagar, Panipat, Panchkula and Faridabad are also industrial hubs, with the Panipat Refinery being the second largest refinery in South Asia. There are also long established steel, plywood, paper and textile industries in the state.

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